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Expanded Index for Theodore W. Allen The Invention of the White Race Volume 2: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo America (Draft Index vol.2, part 1)

The Invention of the White Race Vol. 2
For those interested in probing Theodore W. Allen'sThe Invention of the White Race Volume 2: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo America, The Expanded Index (Draft, vol. 2, part 1) may prove useful. More of the expanded indexing for these important volumes will follow.

[Vol. II of “The Invention of the White Race”]

1 Edw. VI 3 (1547) Vagrancy Act of 1547 20-23
5 & 6 Edw. VI 5 (1551) Tillage 283n18
43 Eliz. 2, (1601) Poor Law: as social control 24-6; right to pay and to leave employment 26
Abbot, Elizabeth 96
Abolition: abolitionist movement 280n66; of slavery 237, 253
absentee landlords 299nn 59-61
Accomack County 157, 161, 166, 180, 335n22: plot 155, 327n51
“Act concerning Servants and Slaves” (1705) 250-1: and establishment of racial oppression and “white race” 272-4; as ruling class manipulation 253
Act “directing the trial of Slaves . . . and for the better government of Negroes, Mulattos, and Indians bond or free” (1723) 241-2, 250-1
Act of Union of England and Scotland (1707) 349n2
Act repealing ban on slavery in Georgia (1750) 253
Adams, William 156
“Address from the People of Ireland to Their Countrymen and Countrywomen in America”
admiralty-type case 180
adulterie/adultery 129, 288n91, 318nn 85, 89
Adventurers 53-4, 63-4, 109, 206, 299n60
African-American bond-laborers: abuse of 141, 323nn 183, 188; arrivals without indentures 179; in Bacon’s Rebellion, joint struggle with European-American bond-laborers for freedom 211, 248, 346n93, not motivated by anti-Indian interests 330n23; barter by 322n167; bastardy laws and 134; collaboration with European-American bond-laborers in actions against their bondage 148-162, 188, readiness to make common cause 161; colonists fear of, uniting with Indians 42; denied right to bear arms 199; direct action with others by running away 188; Elizabeth Key case 194-9; evangelical questions and objections 191-2; John Punch case 178-80; lifetime chattel bond-servitude imposed on, preceded by chattel bond-servitude of European-Americans 300n67; livestock confiscated 250; marriage and freedom 318n77; Maryland slave-owners deliberately foster marriage of male, to European-American women 134, 320n126; number 123-4, 211, 316n40; plots to escape 219, (1722) 242; preamble to South Carolina slave law 293n72; pressure to reduce to lifetime hereditary bond-servitude 123-4, 187-8, challenged 180, 188-91; prohibition from setting free 249, 359n61; punishment for running away 187; rebelliousness of 340n118, 223; in skilled positions 354n97; some owners encourage social mobility and expiration of servitude 193; threat of alliance with French 340n121; time added as penalty 311n37; Virginia-born 123-4; Washburn ignores 340n4; “white identity” and keeping down 249
African-Americans: as buyers and sellers, 181; barred from bearing witness 250; in center of economic history of the hemisphere 9; buy-outs of bond-laborers 188-9; challenge hereditary bondage 188-91; class character of 148; in court 180; contracts made 180-1; in contracts and wills 187-8; denial of rights 250-1; denial of social mobility 279; denied presumption of liberty extended to “white persons and native American Indians” 316n39; denial of testamentary rights 249, 359-60n62; establish normal social status 182; excluded from militia 250; forbidden from holding weapon 250; exclusion of as corollary of “white” identity 249; forbidden from owning Christians 250, from owning “horses, cattle, and hoggs” 287n84; free African-Americans excluded from trades 354n97; free, women declared tithable 187, 190, 250, 336n40; gun licenses 360n74; intermarriage with European-Americans 336n40; importation of bond-laborers 183; laborers 148-149; laborers rights undercut 339n103; landholding, historical significance of 182-6; law against free female, “most explicitly anticipates racial oppression” 187; letter from an African-American, 240; loss of voting rights 242; normal social standing 180-2; not motivated by anti-Indian sentiment in Bacon’s Rebellion 205, 330n23; opposition by propertied class to racial oppression of 193-6; as owners of European-American bond-laborers 186-87; plots 219; prohibited from buying Christian bond-laborers 198; racial oppression in laws against free 250; relative social status of 177-9, “indeterminate” 178; servitude for marriage to European-American 287n84; significant landholding of, in 17th century 182; social mobility of, incompatible with racial oppression 181-2, 186; in trades 354n97; Virginia seeks “to fix a perpetual brand on Free Negros & Mulattos” (Gooch) 242
African bond-laborers: in the Americas 279n58; attempt to establish free settlement at head of James River 245; in Barbados 38; in British West Indies 38-9; discrimination against in skilled occupations 240; Dutch as principal merchants buying and selling (1630s) 310-11n35; English become preeminent suppliers (in 18th century) of 171; Las Casas regrets role in Asiento 4, 277n8; lifetime bond-laborers elsewhere 178-9; in Europe 279n48; number of 8, 198-9, 218, 279nn 48, 58; rebellions 218, 224-5, 240, 352n46, 339n116; social control and 198-9, 224-5, 228-9; status of 177-90; West Africa labor exporting regions of 332n53
African laborers: imported children of African ancestry, age tithable 320n121; shift to, as main supply 240; trade in, as self-motivating capital interest 172; from West Africa; 198, 332n53, 356n9. See also African bond-laborers
Africans: allying with Indians 261; ancestry and headrights 314n4; and intermediate stratum 226, 228; population in Europe 8; prohibitions against working in skilled occupations in English plantation colonies in Americas 240, in Barbados 229; purchased by British army for military service in West Indies 354n108; rebelliousness of newly arriving 356n12; resistance 9, 280n63; as source of labor 8; to Sªo Tomé 277n11. See also African bond-laborers, African laborers
Afro-Brazilians 34, 261-2
Afro-Caribbeans: at first excluded from skilled occupations 233; bond-laborers struggle and “free colored” demands for full citizenship after Haitian Revolution lead to Emancipation 238; bond-laborers who enter British army (after 1807) become free 235; difference of status between persons of African descent in Anglo-America and in the Anglo-Caribbean 238; every concession to freedmen eroded rationale for white supremacy 237; “free blacks and coloreds” in Jamaica own 70,000 of 310,000 bond-laborers 234-5; free colored as shopkeepers and slave-owners 234; free homesteads offered to “every free mulatto, Indian or Negro” in Jamaica 234-5; free persons of color in Jamaica 36% in 1789 and 72% in 1834, in Barbados lower 233; majorities in the British West Indies 232-4; normal class differentiation 234; parallels with Irish struggles against religio-racial oppression 238; petite bourgeois and capitalists sprouted through walls of “white” exclusionism 234; Pinckard argues for social promotion of “people of colour” 236; Rev. Ramsay proposes promoting mulattos as intermediate buffer social control stratum 236; ruling class insights on concessions to freedmen and control over bond-laborers 235-7; traded for enslaved Indians shipped to West Indies 41
agrarian revolution 286n71

Alaska 308n125
Aldeias 34
Allen, Arthur 213, 346-7n97
Allen, Theodore W.: concern with the origin of racial oppression 204; egalitarian motif 1, 38, 204; records research 273, 326n36. See also The Invention of the White Race
Allerton, Isaac 344n50
Alvey, Pope 146
Alworth, John 335n30
Amaru, Tupac 33
Amelia County 257
American Historical Association 148
American Revolution 203, 205
American War of Independence 169
American West 308n125
Ames, William 183
Andrews, Charles M. 347n100
Andros, Governor 273
Anglican Church 165, 238, 329n19
Anglo-American plantation bourgeoisie: attack on laborers free market wage level 64, 77; attack on tenants 79-96; base venture on African chattel bond-labor 223; choose monocultural economy 62; choose perpetual bondage 240; free Negroes and “mulattos” excluded from intermediate stratum for social control 241; sought to establish social control on principle of racial oppression of non-Europeans 223; too many laboring class Europeans 244
Anglo-American plantation colonies: “too many” laboring class Europeans to be accommodated in petty bourgeoisie 244; social structure differs fundamentally from Anglo-Caribbean 349n2
Anglo-Caribbean plantation colonies 38-9, 40-1, 223-38, 240, 242-4; ruling class social control policy with people of African descent in intermediate buffer social control stratum 349n2
Anglo-Dutch wars 168-70, 199-9, 209
Anglo-French wars 170, 271
Angolans, enslavement of 34
anti-Indian war, desire for by three counties 343n35.
anti-vagabond laws 20-22, 24
Antigua 232, 349nn 2-3, 354n91
Antonio 304n23
Apalachees 40, 294n90, as slaves of Creeks 4
apprentices 22-3, 70, 93, 286n69: chattel bond-servitude distinct from 103, 311n38; could not be sold 66; Duty boys 64-66; obliged to work 22; issues of transfer and assignability 311n40, 313-4n41
Aptheker, Herbert 148
Argall, Governor Samuel 56, 299nn 46, 305n28, accused of diverting tenants to private use 57-8, 61, 299nn 53, 55, 81-2
Arkansas 300n67
army: lack of standing in England 16, 270; in West Indies 231-2; subject to many demands 235
Arotirene 262
Arreale, Cornelius 327n53
“arsenal of democracy” 259
Arundell, Peter 88
Asiento de negras 8, Las Casas regrets role in 277n8
assigns 61, 98-100, 311n40
Atkins, Mr. 99, 107
Atlantic slave trade, significance of 8-9
d’Auberville, Hilliard 360n67
Augsburg, War of the League of (King Billy’s War, 1688-97) 217, 270, 353n58, 357n22
Axton, Mary 156
Ayres, Huntington 150
Ayry, Richard 157
Azores 40
Aztecs 32

Bacon Assembly 216, 347n102
Bacon, Sir Francis 288n96, 288-9n99; 312n57, 329n14, 332nn 60, 64: on dividing and breaking combinations 248; monarchy as best form of rule because based on male domination 28-9; “Of Plantations,” an alternate vision 105-6; on rate of expansion of colony’s population and relations with native peoples 313n58; relationship to Nathaniel 359n6; on reverence 164; on role of profit and glory in Virginia plantation 281n69; on role of “yeomanry or middle people” 16-18; slavocracy’s most eminent “theoretician” 359n7; on Virginia as example to be avoided 173; Virginia Company member, 281n69
Bacon, Nathaniel 203, 341nn 10, 14, 346nn 91-92, 358n33: advocates guerilla tactics and believes King will see justice of cause 215; arrival in Virginia 342n19; background on 340n2; and beginnings of rebellion 205-10; birth (1647) and death (1676) 342n18, 345n72; demands of, granted by assembly 211; freeing of bond-laborers 345-6n84; onslaught on Pamunkey 206; proclaims liberty “to all Servants and Negro’s” 213; recognized leader of uprising commissioned “commander-in-chief” by governor 210; relationship to Sir Francis 359n56; sells Indian prisoners 206
Bacon’s Rebellion (1676-7): African-American/European American collaboration in 211, 248, 330n23, 346n93, 358n33; aftermath 26-7; analogy to American Revolution 205, to English Revolution 341n12; anti-Indian phase 204-7, 209-210, 330n23; basic English ruling elite policy was excluding Indians from territory rather than enslaving war captives 204; begins as dispute within ruling elite over “Indian policy” 206-7; bibliography on 340n2, 341n8; bond-laborers in 345-6n83, 346n87, 358n33, number in 211, 346-7n97, role in 205, 211, intervene en masse in 213; captured rebels 347n99, 347n103; civil war phase (1676-77) 204-5, 210 ; colonists involvement in 216; “common run of the people” sought change in land policy not “Indian policy” 208, and call to tax land 208, 343n35; Craven on 340n5; destabilizing factors 217-22; declaration of war 343n42; defeat in, clears way for lifetime hereditary chattel bond-servitude 239; domestic crisis 212; and elimination of middle class 333n80; elite factions in 206-210; fears of complete overthrow of system 212, of foreign power 217, of involvement of other forces 346-7n97, of servants 212; Fiske on 341n 6; freedom from bondage 345-6n84, 346n87; grievances of rebels 210; laboring-class people’s goals 239, solidarity 248; King’s proclamation of amnesty 216, 347n101; possible French invasion 346n92; post-Rebellion destabilizing factors 217-21; land tax incentive 208; most significant social factors contributing to 119; Navigation Acts not an issue 341n14; not primarily an anti-Indian war 205; outbreak 333n80; reaction time of expeditionary force 215; revenue losses 345n67; solidarity of English and Negroes in Armes” in 240; status of African-Americans and 178; runaways and 153, 326n39; Virginia Assembly passes law during, enslaving Indian war captives for life 37, 123; Washburn on 340n4; Wertenbaker on 333n80
Bacon’s Castle 346-7n97
Bahamas 349n2
Bahia 262
Bailyn, Bernard 205-6, 208, 210, 308n121, 340n13
Baker, William 213
balance of trade, chronic unfavorable 259
Ball, John 264, 284n26
Ballagh, James C. 50, 267, 315n27
Baltimore, Lord 221, 348-9n150
baptism Christian: and freedom 197; no basis for freedom 337n76
Baptista, John 189, 337n65
Barbados: African bond-laborers 224, increased exploitation and recruitment into militia of 354n110; African-American bond-laborers from 187; Afro-Barbadians 229, women 354n91; Afro-Caribbean majorities 233-4; Afro-Caribbean as middle class 235, 237; attempts to reduce natives to bond-servitude in 223; banishment to 135; Brown Privilege Bill 238; Colony Council 230, 353n57; “coloreds” 237; Dutch in 350n9; early settlement of, 3; emigration 232, of freemen 227-9; estate size, average 227; English bond-laborers 224, reduced service of 352n47; European bond-laborers 223-4, 321n147, join forces with African bond-laborers 224; European emigrants 351n35; execution of plotters 224; felons 224; free coloreds 226, 234, 237-8, 351n41, in intermediate buffer social control stratum 242-3; free persons of African ancestry, 5% in 186 and 34% in 1833 237; free Negroes required to serve in militia 242; freedmen 234-237, 352n53; General Assembly warns of Irish in Rebellion 230, Indians 349nn 4-5; Irish bond laborers 224, rebels excluded 353n57; landholding 227, 351n33; little to fear from Rebels “whilst England is Master of the Sea” 291n35; “military tenants” 352n53; Negro bond-laborers substituted for European tradesmen 353-4n90; “Negro conspiracy” 224; percent bond-servants to landholders 351n33; planters opposition to baptism of Negroes 197; plantation owners 352n47; plots by bond-laborers 224; “poor whites” 352nn 53, 55, former arrogance disappears 352n55; population 38, 350-1n25, 351n28, density 227; preachers prevented from coming to Virginia 338n90; prisoners 229, 352n46, of war 224; Quakers and Christianity in 165, 191-2, 197; “Rebell negro slaves” 224; rebellions 229-230, 352n46; “Redlegs” 352n55; repressive measures 192, 338n90; revolt (1816) 237, 355n129; ruling class social control by tripartite social structure including people of African descent 349n2; Scottish bond-laborers in 224; slave law (1547) in England as model for slave code in 285-6n59; “slave menace” 352n47; slaveowners 237, 355n124, desire to get money 329n19; Sunday markets 234; transformed into sugar plantation economy 63; unfitness rationale 38-40; vagabonds 224; “white” in 351nn 39, 41; “white” servants 353n57; “white” workers 354n97; “white” women 354n91
Barnes, Law[rence] 183
Barnhouse, Amy 193
Bashore (“Negro”) 193-4
Basse, Captain 100
bastards: 24, 318n85, bastardy laws 129-35
Bateman, Robert 87
Bates, Eric 312n54
Baxter, Richard 191-2
Bayano 262
Bay of Fundy 6
Beale, Thomas 151-2
Beard, Margaret 155
Beare, William 65
Beazeley, Annie 136
Beckles, Hilary 351n33, 352n53, 354n91
Beckles, John Allayne 236
Beckwith, George 127
Bedford, Nathaniel 190-1
benefit: “benefit of clergy” 324n191; of planters 246; ending the “slave” trade, for West Indian bond-laborers 338n86; majority of Virginia planters don’t 247
Bennett, Edward 95
Bennett, Governor Richard 183
Bennett, Lerone, Jr. 50-51, 182, 341n7
Benrose, Tho. 182
Berkeley, (Lady) Frances 347n103
Berkeley, Governor William: and Bacon’s Rebellion (1676-7) 203, 205-10, 212-15, aftermath 216, 218; complains of unfairness of Navigation Acts 341n14; Defiance of King’s proclamation 216; denouncer of monoculture 169; departure (1676) 240; and Elizabeth Key case 95; estimates 1,500 European chattel bond-laborers arriving yearly 119; estimates not 1 in 5 English chattel laborers survive period of “indentures” 38; flees Jamestown 210; gives Indian girl to shipmaster 342n22; hangings by 347n104; historians on 347n103 “Indian policy” of, “destroy” Northern Indians and maintain relations with neighboring tribes 207; Lawnes Creek Mutiny validates fears of 169; licensing authority for Indian trade 343n42; on mortality rate 316n41, 322-3n180; number of bond-laborers 326n41; offers freedom to bond-laborers of Baconite owners 346n87; rebels plan for bond-laborers to demand freedom from 152; on threat of insurrection 168-9; Walklett and Ingram surrender to 346n91
Berkeley Hundred 70-71, 78, 303n148
Berkenhead 152
Berlin, Ira 359n58
Bermuda 3, 40, 49, 66, 88
Berry, Sir John 211, 216, 347n103
Berry, Robert 335n36
Best, Thomas 107
Betty (African-American) 157
Beverleys 327n67
Beverly, William 157
Billings, Warren M. 153, 166, 339nn 103, 105
Billsberry, Henry 142
Bindoff, S. T. 285n55
Birkenhead 326n32
“Black James” 156, 327n53
Black Jacobins (James) 344n58
Black Reconstruction (Du Bois) 324n1
Black regiment 225
Blackheath 264
Blair, James 173-4, 329n19, 332n65
Bland, Giles 201, 209-210
Bland, John 337n74
Blassingame, John W. 360n75
Blathwayt Papers 347n108
Bloxam, John 155
Blumenthal, Walter Hart 322-3n180
Board of Trade 120, 171, 218-9, 244: and Gooch case 249-50, 356-7n19
Bogland Act 354n103
Boies, George 161
Bolas, Juan de 225
Boleyn, Anne 287n87
Bolívar, Simón 10, 210
Bona Nova 79-81, 304-5n24
bond-labor: abuse of 143-4, 269, 323-4n188, 324nn 191-2; acquisition costs 121, 137; adult white males in Virginia, over 60 percent non-owners of 256; African 178, 223; Afro-Barbadian women 354n91; arming of rejected 218; assault by 149-50; “assign” 98-100; bastardy laws and 129-35, marriage as defense against 129, 318n80, plantation bourgeoisie influence on 132-3; beating of 144-5, 324nn 191-2; chattel form 119; chattelization of European-Americans as essential precondition for lifetime bond-servitude 268, 300n67; Chesapeake, majority European-American in 17th century 192; common class interest with poor and landless free 220; common in surplus producing societies 97; denial of right to bear arms for most 199; domestic sources 37, 122-4; Dutch attitude different towards immigrant 102, toward buying and selling Africans 310-11n35; employment of in South Carolina came later and was short-lived 300n67; ending “slave” trade would benefit West Indian bond-laborers 338n86; “enduring” 97-114 passim; English 223; European 223; European-American abandon opposition to plantocracy 249; Fiske on 341n6; feudal pre-capitalist, was two-way bondage 97; freedom: Bacon’s Assembly extends to 347n102, implications of 211; general conditions 267-9; historians ignoring of 211; illness among 142-3; increase of 218; Indian 36-45, 122-3, no “transportation charges” needed for 44, war captives 207; inevitability of 103-5; Irish 218, 223, “confederate with the negroes” 244, boys forced exile to Jamaica 351n41; lifetime 177-8, 287n74, 289n101; limited-term 177, 334n9, length of service 179, extension of length of service 322n161, 331n37, 334n18, restricted to those of “Christian nation” 179; “loss of services” 130-1, 319nn 95, 101; majority of planters and landless freemen could not afford to buy 199; majority of “white” adult male population not owners of 247; marriage of exceptional 327n67; murder by owners 143-6, 322-3n188, 323n189, 324n192; natives of the Caribbean, English attempts to reduce to 223; “negative incentives” imposed on 140; number of 69, 211, 217-8; opposition to 107-8; oppression of 119, 124-47; owners of African ancestry 240; owners’ profit on 321-2n160; percent becoming landholders 351n33; positive incentive to produce 141; pre-capitalist, two-way bondage of 97; “quid pro quo” rationale 101-3, 107; rebelliousness 218; resistance by 119; “resisting” 119-47 passim; Scottish 223; “seasoning” time 322-3n180; as self-activating shapers of history 211; servant trade 119-22, merchants stimulate 119; social control problem 109; struggle, key to history of West Indies 344n58; tithable 344n57; tobacco plantations and 312n54; unpaid, to meet bourgeoisie’s desire to lower labor costs 98, as surrogate for unemployed labor reserve 98. See also chattel bond-servitude
bond-labor, lifetime hereditary 134, 196, 198-9, 223, 254, 289n101: and Christianity 338n82; economics of 172; not cause of “race not class” 240; plantation owners desire to raise profit by imposing on African Americans 196. See also hereditary bond-labor

bond-labor, limited-term 123-4, 139, 178, 250, 267-8: large proportion held by small planters in Maryland 300n67
bond-labor system: antithetical to interests of African-American bond laborers and non-owners of bond-laborers 248; basis of extreme inequality 203; chattelization to meet bourgeoisie’s desire for free flow of capital 98-100; costs: maintenance of bond-laborers 137-8, of workers 121, of prosecution and corporal punishment 127-8, of recapture 326n42, 329nn 8, 10, transportation paid by employers 71-2, 99, and repayment of costs by extension of servitude 326n43; historians on 267-9; inequality, extreme 203; inhibits family formation 70; planter’s interest benefited 246; and monoculturul economy 226
bond-laborers (colonial Anglo-America): armed rebellion 149; abuse of 323-4n188, 324nn 191-2; acquittal of killers of Negro or Indian lifetime 186, adult 317n55; African-American, brutal treatment of 141, not motivated by anti-Indian sentiment in Bacon’s Rebellion 205, 330n23, plots 219; Afro-Brazilian 34, 261-2; Berkeley estimates not 1 in 5 English chattel laborers survive period of their “indentures” 38, estimates 1,500 European chattel bond-laborers arriving yearly (1676) 119; children of 132-3, with lifetime servitude become “cost-effective” 320n120; Christian should not be bound to an African 250, to another Christian 192; “christian white” limited-term unprecedented guarantees 250; commodity in barter 322n167; convicts, number of 358n34 and their transportation costs 121, 315n22, 319n104; English in Maryland 301n94, 302nn 110-1, 316-7n52, 322-3n180; European 347-8n117; European-American solidarity with African-American 153, 161-2, 177, 240, 243-4, and personal ties 186; European-American, 267-9, conditions not improved by employment of African laborers 267, physical abuse of 141-7, mortality rate of 322-3n180, 323n183; extended length of service for Irish and captured runaways 334n18; fear of Irish confederating with Negroes 244; first fugitive, sentenced to extended time as penalty 108; importation of by African-Americans 183; intervene en masse in Bacon’s Rebellion 213; length of servitude 179, extended for Irish and captured runaways 334n18; lifetime 177; limited term 77; majority of population 328n75; missing in Washburn 340n4; number 210, 314nn 4, 10, 347-8n117; outlaw sex for limited-term 158; as percent of immigrants 322-3n180; plots 155, 321n156; self-activation of 148; striving for freedom 211; supervision of 322n171
bond-servitude 8, 311n38, 363n7: denial of social mobility to those in bondage 179, 343n33; lifetime 179; lifetime hereditary 223, path for cleared by defeat in Bacon’s Rebellion 239; tobacco bourgeoisie assumes they will resist in every way 244
bondage, one-way, of apprentice 66
bondmen: Duty boys 65-6; intermediate bond-servitude forms 64-9; “maids-for-wives” 64, 66-9; “that all bondmen be made free” 21
Bonnie Bess 88
Borinqueños 31
bounties 295n109
bourgeoisie: and accumulation of capital 205; and African bond-labor 223; after failure to diversify 217-8; and birth of children 320n120; blindspot 211; British 10; “cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production and thereby the relations of production” (Marx) 351-2n51; chooses chattel bond-labor 223; class instinct, victory of 63; deliberately fosters middle class 17; desire to import Africans as lifetime hereditary bond-laborers 198; draws color line 45; elite 358n39; English, repression by 17; eye 205; fear of resistance 244-5; logic and oversupply of laborers 309n138; plantation 331-2n51, 356n9: desire to reduce African-American bond-laborers to lifetime servitude 179-80, establishes one-way bondage 98; initiates white-skin privilege system 253; power enhanced by dependence of colonists 78; pressure for unpaid labor time 187; and racial oppression 223; seeks to create extreme dependence of laboring people 75, 95; and social control 3, 222, 284n26; and two-fold problem of labor supply and social control 3
Bradley, John 150-1, 325n21
Bradnox, Captain 125
Bradye, John 155
branding 20, 126
Brase (“a Negro”) 180
Brazil: African labor in 7-8; Dutch role in 7, 277n23, 350n9; forced Indian labor in 39; indigenous society of 291n45; Palmares quilombo of 261-2; Portuguese in 7-8, 33-4; non-enslavability of Indians in 34; similarity to Virginia with respect to social control in a continental colony 33-35, runaways 261-2
Breen, Timothy H. 182, 335nn 22, 36, 341n7: bond-laborers as self-activating force in Bacon’s Rebellion 148, 344n58; class character of struggle of African-American bond-laborers 148; use of term “whites” and attribution of loss of solidarity to exclusively objective factors 324n4
Brewster, Richard 302n110
Brereton, Thomas 156
Brick House 346-7n97
Brigder, Colonel Joseph 210
Bridgett 320n119
Brigg, Henry 87-88, 107
British feudal; ruling class 101
British laborers, kidnapped 315n12
British ruling class see British bourgeoisie
British West Indies: African bond-laborers 38-9; bond-laborers become freedmen by serving in army 235; bond-laborers’ emancipation 10; contrast with continental social control problem 224-6, 291n35, and solution 349n2; British army in West Indies, 354-5n111, purchase of Africans 354n108; markets 360n67; Negro population 39, ruling class social control policy 349n2;
Brown, Alexander 49-50, 71, 306n54, 307n80, 308n121
Brown, Devorax 156
Brown Privilege Bill 238
Brown, Robert E. and B. Katherine 357n37, 359n52
Browne, W. H. 125
Bruce, Philip Alexander: on African bond-laborers 198; on African-American bond-labor 340n118; on Argall 299n46; on bond laborers’ diet 321n156, 267; on chattel bond-servitude and “progress” 50, 103-6, 267, 312n53 332nn 59, 63; on “marked tendency to promote a pride of race” among “white people” 249; on owner reluctance to address bond-laborer illness 143; on plantation bourgeoisie reneging on “Duty boys” contracts 96; on possible alternative path 173; thesis on inevitability of “indentured servitude” 103-06, 332n59; on Revel’s poem 315n27; on tobacco: cultivation 312n54, in Virginia history 56, 175, 299n41, 332n59, perishing 140, prices 330n22
Bryan, William Jennings 258
Brazil 280n66
Buckland, Richard 335n37
Bucklands, Mihil 180
Buckmaster, Widow 157
“buffer” role: ambivalence of 43-4; where intermediate buffer social control stratum becomes dysfunctional rebellion breaks through 149
buffer social control (Anglo-America): absence of, leading up to Bacon’s Rebellion 164; all persons of any degree of non-European ancestry excluded from 13; English plantation variation in recruitment to and exclusions from social control buffer 12-13; Indians in Virginia to serve as two-way buffer as shelter against hostile tribes and to prevent runaways 41, 43, 208, subsequently excluded from “white race” system of social control 41; lack of effective intermediate buffer social control stratum in 17th century Virginia 219-20; made up of free proletarians and semi-proletarians 13; peculiarity of system established is in “control” aspect 12-13
buffer social control (Anglo-Caribbean): ruling class policy with people of African descent in intermediate stratum 349n2; military force results in extermination of Indians and absence of intermediate social stratum in Hispaniola, Cuba, and Puerto Rico 32; Spain in Mexico and Peru socially demotes caciques to 32
Bugby, Peter 182
Bull, Robert 156
Bullock, William 265-6
Burke, Edmund (1729-1797) 235, 239, 251, 254
Burnham, Rowland 188
Burton, Francis 144
Bushrod, Thomas 137
Butler, Nathaniel 88-9, 307nn 80-1
Butt, John 145
Byrd, William, I 205, 209
Byrd, William, II 245, 340n121, 358n33

Cabot, John 3
Caciques 31-4, 224, 280-1n69, 291n31, 294n89; absence of 36, 39, 41; definitions of 290n22; socially demoted by Spanish to buffer social control stratum 32
Cade, James 127
calendar dates and legal year 302n106
Callen, Thomas [or Caller] 156
Callon, Hugh 156
Calvert, Charles 282
Calvert, George 282
Canada 6
Canaobo, Chief 31
Canneday, Katherine 127
Cape Coast Castle 332n53
Cape Corso 332n53
capital: accumulation 10, 205, and misery 173; “breeding women” (Jefferson) as addition to, 357n24; costs 226-30; concentration of 166, 256; drain of 170; social control necessary for 240; intensive technology 227; interest and African labor trade 172; relation to labor 324n200; scarcity of 171; venture 66-69
capitalism: ascendant 25; based on chattel-bond servitude and engrossment of the land 239; development of in Europe 263-4; in England 10-11,14-25; predicated on need for unattached labor-power 97; plantation bourgeoisie establish a one-way bondage between labor and capitalist 98; replaces two-way bondage of feudalism with two-way freedom 97; and tenantry 104; transition to 14-24, 333n74
capitalist: bond labor owner as 223; crisis of overproduction 62-3, 301n94; exploiters of bond labor 331-2n51; plantation owners reliance on increased exertion by laborers 124; plantation bourgeoisie establish a one-way bondage between labor and capitalist 98; plantations as capitalist enterprises 97; production 175, 333n74; relations of production in England 263-4; society, social distinctions in 242
Capps, William 99
“Captains” 91, 297-8n23
Caribbean Indians 224
Carman, Henry 96
Carpenter, Francis 144, 324n191
Carolinas 226
Carroll, Martha 328n79
Carson, Jane 340n2
Cartagena 261
Carter, John 65
Carver, William 157
Casar (Negro bond-laborer) 183, 336n43
“casiques” see caciques
Catford, Walter 149
Catholics: Irish family 197; in Maryland 282n1; religious orders Brazil 35
Chambers, Alice 309n144
Chambers, Richard 145
Chapman, Nicholas 131
Charles City 92-3
Charles City County 212-13
Charles I, King of Spain 3, 8, 313-4n41
Charles II, King of England: and Bacon’s Rebellion 203, 215-6; and Barbados 231; on Berkeley 347n104; brother heads Royal African Company 332n55; financial difficulties 212; and land grants 209; profit from African and African-American lifetime bond-laborers 172; restored to throne 325n9
Charles V 281n75
Charleston, South Carolina 253
Charlton, Stephen 188, 193, 335n26, 336n55, 338nn 95-8
Chastellux, Marquis de 256
chattel bond-laborers: common throughout plantation Americas 12: as percent of European immigrants 119; number 119, 210; unpaid bought and sold 24. See also bond-laborers
chattel bond-servitude: absent in England 100-01; capitalism and plantation elite 239; condemned in England, 313n61; distinct from English apprenticeship 103, 311-12n41; extreme form of proletarian dependence under capitalism 124; history’s false apologetics for 100-05; inimical to democratic develo0pment 103; in “Leah and Rachel” 298n35: not an unreflecting adaptation of English precedents, repudiates master-servant relationship 103; origin of 296n5; overthrow of tenantry clears way for 239; resented by servants 313n61; resistance to 148-162; and social control 240; tenants reduced to 72-4, 303n156; in Virginia 174. See also bond-labor
chattelization: commitment to, begins 98; of English plantation labor, a precondition for lifetime chattel bond-servitude 300n67; plantation bourgeoisie executes plan for 101; transfer to another employer without consent of the person transferred 80
“cheap commodity” strategy 265-6
Cheke, John 21
Cherokees 35, 294-5n106: and buffer role 43-4; on Yamassee war policy ceasing war with Creeks and no way of “getting Slaves” 293n64
Chesapeake: class distinction 246-7; convicts 120, 122; enforcement of racial oppression 252; European immigrants 119; forms of oppression 133, 137, 139, 142, 146; “Golden Age” 239; marriage and social mobility 181; master-servant relationships 268; monoculture 166; Quakers 192; resistance 211; ruling class favored by balance of forces in 17th century 102; social instability 218-19; status of African Americans 177; tenantry 104. See also Virginia
Chelsea College jail 337n74
Cheyne, Margaret (Lady Bulmer) 287n87
Chichimecs, relatively class-undifferentiated 33
Chickasaws 35
Chickhominy Indians 305-6n43
Chinese 362n118
Christians: baptism 196-8, 228; conversion, uncoupled freedom from 339n103; Henry Cromwell equates Englishmen with 351n41; fellowship 180; as euphemism for “white” 351n41; Las Casas concerned with genocidal exploitation of native population by 4; men, warlike 362n116; nations 179; principle against holding Christian as slave 192, 195, 334n13, and racial oppression 337n77; religious orders 34; servants 137; as term used for European bond-laborers 228
Chrouchley, Thomas 65
Cittenborne Parish 343n35
civil rights struggle 148, 203, and impending crisis 258-9
Civil War: 258
“Civis” 361n105
Claiborne, Mr. 100
class: all-class coalition absent 177; analysis 246-8; antagonism 147; conflict and resolution 19-24, 330n23; collaboration 228; consciousness 240; differentiation 290n10, denial of 177; discrimination 209; distinction 62, 85, 184, 209, 245-8, 251; exploitation and suffering 89; family denial and sharpening of antagonism of 147; forces, general relationship of 310n30; oppression 178-9, 130-5, and Poor Law 24-6; 133; solidarity 177; and special conditions for profiteering 89; stratification 292n47; struggle 9, 15-6, 34, 204, 233-4, 257, 259, 296-7n11; “transitions” 14-16; and wage payment required in England 22-4; yeomanry 17-19; English bourgeoisie foster a lower middle-class stratum 17-19
class oppression: compounded by “bastardy laws” 130-5; lifetime servitude as 179; and oppression of women 26-9; reduction of almost totally English labor force to chattel bond-servitude in 1620s Virginia an extremely reactionary form of 178-9: resistance to 148-162 passim; slavery of Scots miners and salt pan workers as 179
class struggle 204, 223, 259, 299n41, interpretation 333n74, 334n6, 341n6
classes: five officially recognized in spring of 1622 93-4
Clerk, Agnes, 157
cloth industry 10
Clure, Eleanor 314n7
Clutton, William 151-2
Cocore (African American woman) 182
Coke, Roger 271
Colbert, Jean Baptiste 7
Colclough, George 195
collectivism 296n5
Collins, Anne 159
Collins, Mary 315 n 15
Colombia 261
colonizing powers 3
color, not class 356n7
Columbus, Christopher 205
commissioners 163
Commissioners of Trade and Plantations 43, 170-71, 229, 272, 332n65
commodity production, simple 175, 333nn 73, 74
“common people” 173, 259
Company of Royal Adventurers to Africa 197
Concord 214
Connell, Michael 156
Conner, Ellinor 143
conquistadors 7
conscious decision: to opt for monoculture and chattel bond-labor 175
constables 163, 329nn 8, 10
Constitution of 1789 254
Constitutional Convention 258
convicts: include captives taken in civil war or rebellions 120; importation as bond-laborers discouraged 245; thirty-five to fifty thousand brought to continental colonies as bond-servants 314n10, thirty thousand brought (between 1717 and 1772) 358n34; Privy Council orders to transport, to Virginia as “servants” 64-5; profitability in shipment as bond-laborers 122; in Virginia 70; Spanish and Portuguese 5
Cook, Noble David 290n10
Cookson, Richard 154-5
Cooper, Edward 314n7
(Cooper), Skipper 336 n.40
Cooper, Thomas 315n22
Coopy, Robert E. 72, 99, 303n148
corn: bond-laborers forced to subsist on 138; capitalist profiteering in trade with Indians 90-2; dispute over 83; much, but shortage of laborers (1624) 309n147; prices 91-2; production (18th century) 331-2n51
Cornelius (“a dutchman”) 327n53
Cornelys, John 181
Cornwallis, Charles 346-7n97
Cortés, Hernán 289n2, 291n52
Corven, Philip 136-7
cottagers 284n25
cotton gin 299n41
“counterfeit of social mobility,” “white” identity as 248-9
Courtney, Thomas 323n183
coverture 130, 132, 146-7, 318-9n93
Craven, Charles 295n115
Craven, Wesley Frank: on Bacon’s Rebellion 204, 340n5; on death rate 322-3n180; on Edwin Sandys sending thousands of ill-provisioned laborers to Virginia 309n138; on headrights and population figures 314n4; on partisan conflicts 106; supports thesis on chattel-bond-servitude as indispensable 312n53, 332n63
Creek Indians, 35, 294n92
crimps 120
Cripps, Antho. 182
crisis: following attack (1622) 93-4; making one, serve another 84-95; of overproduction 62-3, 169
“Croatan” 306n48
Cromwell, Henry (1628-74), Lord Deputy (1657-59) 351n41
Cromwell, Oliver (1599-1658), English Lord Protector, regime of, in Ireland (1649-1658): Cromwellian Commonwealth 314n9; Cromwellian conquest of Ireland 230; dead body of, exhumed for hanging 347n104
Crotuff [Crotofte], Roger 151, 157, 327n71
Crow, Henry 157
Cuba: era of Emancipation 10; genocidal labor regime in 7; Indians in 278n40, 291n52; Maroons in 280n66; in need of social-control stratum 31-2;
Cudjoe, Captain 225-6
Culpeper, Governor Thomas Lord 172, 217, 220-1, 291n35, 326n41
“cultural barriers” 296-7n11
Curtin, Philip D. 316n40
Custer, George 205
Custis, Daniel Parke 325n7
Custis, John 149, 157, 325n7
Custis, Martha Dandrige 325n7
“custom of the country” 126, 135, 149, 179, 325n21: unpaid chattel status as 24

Dale, Governor Thomas 54, 109, 297-8n23
Dalton, Michael 311n40
Dandy, John 144
Dandy, Thomas 144
Danker, Jaspar 142
Davenport, John 340n2
David, John 328n92
Davies, C. S. L. 21, 281n75, 285n45
Davies, Sir John 21, 231
Davis, Edward 187-8
Davison, Christopher 88
Davison, Sol 362n123
Deal, Joseph Douglas III 335nn 22, 37, 338n96: on Anthony Johnson family 182; on growth of racism in late 17th/early 18th centuries 328n96; “larger percentage of Eastern shore blacks were free” 336n43; on sexual liaisons as resistance 153
death penalty 126, for stealing a cow 301n100
death rate: 181, 304n2, 308n122: one out of six new immigrants alive (in 1625) 76; one-third of colonists die in one day (1622) 85; “dominion of death” (1622) 89, 93, 306nn 53-4; two-thirds die in one or two year period 308n125
Debeada (Indian king) 181
Debs, Eugene V. 258
Declaration of Independence 254
defiant solace 158-61, freeman involvement in 159-60
“deficiency laws”: for social control in West Indies 228-30, 237, 240; in South Carolina and Georgia 252--3
Degler, Carl N. 254
Dego 189
Delaware, Lord 305n28
Delaware tribe 294nn 90, 93
Delegitimizing 242
“deliberate choice” explanation: “to fix a perpetual brand on” (Gooch) 242; laws “deliberately calculated to undercut the meager rights of black laborers” (Billings) 339n103; Morgan’s contribution to, explanation 255, 296-7n11
deliberate conferring of privileges 248-50, 296-7n11
deliberate ruling-class social control policy: English governing classes 16th century decision to preserve section of peasantry as intermediate social control stratum 109; Gooch letter proceeds from conscious decision to establish system of racial oppression 242; House of Lords weighs concessions against encouraging rising expectations 283n19; Morgan on 248-9, 255; Virginia Assembly’s decision to promote “racial contempt” and establish “anomalous privileges” 249; “white race” as 274;
Dennis (“Negro girl”) 188
Dew, Thomas Roderick 254, inversion of cause and effect of “white solidarity” and racial slavery 356n13
Dickinson, Jane and husband Ralph 107-8
diet: Bruce on 321n156; customary, in England 321n150; of European bond-laborers in Barbados 321n147; owners in tobacco colonies feed bond-laborers on corn138; and penalties for hog killing 325n24; in Virginia 151-3
Digby 213
direct action 188
disease 7, 32, 34, 37, 40, 77 impact of epidemic European 7, 292n48
diversification 169-71, 175, 347n116, opposition to 217-18
“divided labor market” 296-7n11
Doegs 207, 342n17
Dole, Benjamin 182-3
domesticated animals 290n10
Domingo Bioho, King Benkos 261-2
Dominica 349n2
Dominican Republic 278n31
Doodes, Minor 189
Doughty, Francis 335n37
Douglas, Paul H. 311n38
Doxey, Thomas 127
Drake, Sir Francis 262
Drake, Thomas 191
Dregus (Rodrigues), Emmanuell 188-9 See also Rodriggus
(Drigges), John 335n30
Driggs (Drigges), Emanual 193, 335n30
Driggus, Ann 188, 336n61
Driggus, Elizabeth 336n40
Driggus, Manuel 194, 336n40, 338-9n102
Driggus, Thomas 336n40
Driver, David 127
Drummer, William 155
Drummond, William 346-7n97
Du Bois, W. E. B. (author, Black Reconstruction) 148, 324n1
“dual labor market” 240
“ducking stool” 318-9n93
Duke of York 332n55
Dulany, Daniel 320n127
Dun, Alexander 161, 328n92
Dunn, Richard S. 224-5, 228, 232, 349n1
Dutch 178, 215, 277n23: invasion of Brazil 350n9; plantation owners settle in Barbados 350n9; posts in West Africa 197; trade 341n14; Virginia points susceptible to shipborne incursions by 209. See also Anglo-Dutch wars.
Dutch East Indies and Dutch West Indies 5
Duty Boys 65-66, 96

Earle, Carville V. 312n48
East India Company 303n151
Easter Rebellion (1710) 219
Eaton, Ann 335n37
economic interpretation of history 339n105
Edward VI, king of England see English monarch
Edwards, Bryan 225
Edwards, John 183
Effingham, Governor 221
Egerton, Charles 156
Egleston, Melville 174
Egmont, Earl of 245, 358n33
Eighty Years War (1568-1848) 5
Elizabeth (child) 188
Ellinor (free woman) 160
Ellsworth, Oliver 309n1
Eltonhead, Jane 186-7, 336n48
emancipation struggles 9-10: of bond-laborers 193, 249-50, 255; Brazil (1871-78) 10; British West Indies (1833-1848) 10, 237-8; Cuba (1868-78) 10; Haiti 9-10; right to 194-6; U.S. 10, 238
Emanuel 154-5
emigration 4-5, 227-30, 270-1: encouraged 60; English to Virginia 76; transportation paid by planters 61
encomenderos 39, 280n69, 290n12,
encomienda 7, 33, 278n41, 291nn 43, 51
engagés 6-7, 278n35, survival rate 38
Engels, Friedrich 328n80
England: army, unfeasibility of maintaining in Virginia 220-1; Civil War in 19; contest with France 171; colonization efforts of 3, 11-12, 281-2n87; convergence of forces launch cloth-making industry as transformer of economic life to capitalist basis 10; differs from other colonizing powers 3, 11-12; enclosures 21; English Expeditionary Force 215; English Revolution 206, 270, 341n12; expropriation of peasants 18; “Master of the Sea” 291n35; mercantilism 169-70; military and naval presence 226, 231-2; monarchy 10, 169; revenues from tobacco 217-8; servile labor from 356n9; social relations under feudalism 287-8n88; and westering impulse 3
English common law: actions against racial oppression without reference to 193; African-American bond laborers and 134; and bond-servitude 103, 167, 178-9, 191, 311n37; bar to enslavement of Christians 178; courts and 130; fornication penalties 129-30, 243; partus sequitur patrem 195, 197; partus sequitur ventrem 134; pecuniary damages as penalty for servants 311n37; rule of descent challenged by some owners 134
English people “would sell their own fathers” (de Vries) 102;
English monarchs: Edward VI (1547-1553) 21; Henry VII (1485-1509) 3, 18, 109, 332n60; Henry VIII (1509-1547) 11, 15, 28, 287n87, 288n91, 311n37; James I (VI of Scotland) (1603-25) 3, 11, 49, 62 282, 312n57n1, 313n59; James II (1685-89) 216, 282n1, 332n55; George III (1760-1820) 203, 205
entitlements 259
entradas 34
equal rights 204
Essex County 160
Essex, Earl see Devereux, Robert 345n67
Euro-Caribbeans 232
Europe: colonizing powers and colonial labor supply 3-13; Medieval: slaves, obtained by trade from Russia, Turkey, Levant, Moslem Moors, and (Negroes from) North African Arab merchants 8
European-American bond laborers: collaboration with African-American bond-laborers in Bacon’s Rebellion for freedom from bondage 211, 248, 346n93; collaborative actions and plots against their bondage 148-162, and readiness to make common cause 161; in contracts and wills 187-8; costs of 121, 139; involuntary condition 120; most did not survive terms of service 44; number of 211, 347-8n117; owned by African-Americans 186-7, prices of 121; voluntary 120. See also bond-laborers
European-Americans: Chesapeake 192; collaboration with African-Americans 148-50, 162, 248; and disappearance of labor solidarity 324n4; and “divided labor market” explanation for “race not class” challenged 240; elements opposed to racial oppression 193-6; evangelical questions and objections 191-2; fleeing to the Indians 77; intermarriage with African-Americans 336n40; laborers had no desire for privileges vis-à-vis African Americans 162; landholding 184-6, increasing concentration of 166, 174; opposition to lifetime bond servitude 193; owned by African-Americans 186-7; owners of African-Americans 190, 193; population 232-3, 353n87; right to bear arms 199; sexual liaisons with African-Americans 160-1, 243-4, 250-1; status reduction from tenants and wage-laborers to chattel bond-servitude 178; transmogrification of, into the “white race” 204-05; treatment of 267-9, disparate 319n95
Europeans: emigrants 351n35; father, non-European mothers 291n30; number of immigrants from, in Virginia and Maryland 119; occupation of Indian lands 205; in West Indies propertyless marginalized as “poor whites” 230
Evans, Owen 66-7
Evellyn, Montroze 187
Everitt, Henry 127
Eyre [or Eyres], John 327n69

Fabians 282n3
Fairfax County 104
Fairfax, William 245
family: barring oppression 147; formation inhibiting bond-labor system 70, in Virginia and Maryland 174; life, denial of 128-30, 317-8n76, outlawed for limited-term bond laborers 129
farm-to-factory migration 258
Farnando, Bashawe 193
felons 120, 315n27
“feme covert” 28, 196
“feme sole” (unmarried woman) 287n86
Fennell, John 157
feudalism: bourgeoisie replaces two-way bondage of, with two-way freedom of capitalist relation of production 97: end of 264, 282-3n6, 287-8n87, 288n89; lines drawn 15
Fincher, Joseph 144, 146, 324n190
Finley, John 345n73
Fisher, John 151
Fiske, John B. 341n6
Fitzhugh, George 140, 363n9
Fitzhugh, William 122, 140
“to fix a perpetual brand” (Gooch) 242
Flanders 297-8n23
Fletcher, Mary 213, 345n82
flight to Indians 77, 153: by sea 33. See also runaways
Florida 40, 42, 291n43, 294n90
Flower, Thomas 99
food scarcity: dependence on corn from Indians 90, on English supplies 77-8, 85-8
forced labor see Asiento, bond-servitude, chattel bond-servitude, encomienda, mita, repartimiento
forced migration 9
Ford, Sibble 155
fornication: African-Americans involved with European-Americans 161; and Dutch laws in New Netherlands 318n85; first laborer penalized with extra time for 96; as form of resistance 149, 153, 158-61; found 140 cases involving “a negro” 327-8n74; as gender class oppression 319n110; and Maryland laws 318n89
Fortescue, John W. 231
forty-shilling freeholders 284n28, 358n35
Foster, John 188
Foster, Sir Augustus John 254
“foure hundred English and Negroes in Armes” 214
Fox, Charles James 236,
Fox, George 191, 351n39
Foxcroft, Capt. 136
France: colonization efforts different from those of England 11; contest with England 172, wars with 218, 230, 235; labor-supply problem, plantation colonies 6-8; wage workers in colonies 6, and Haiti 278n31
Francis I, king of France 3
Francisco 335n30
Frank (African-American “servant”) 161-2, 328n94
Frank, Daniell 65, 301n102
free African-Americans: as proportion of total 336n46; contrast status with free persons of African ancestry, 233, 349n2; excluded from possession of weapons 250
“free colored” (or “free black” or Mulatto): bond-laborers struggle and “free colored” demands for full citizenship rights in aftermath of Haitian Revolution lead to Emancipation 238; contrast roles in British West Indies and Virginia 238, 357n22; definitions of (in West Indies) 354n96; “free blacks and coloreds” by 1830 in Jamaica own 70,000 of 310,000 bond-laborers 234-5; free colored as shopkeepers and slave-owners in British West Indies 234; free homesteads offered to “every free mulatto, Indian or Negro” in Jamaica 234-5; in Jamaica free persons of color are 36 percent of population in 1789 and 72 percent in 1834, in Barbados similar but lower 233; majorities in the British West Indies 232-4; free Negroes and “mulattos” 240; number in Barbados and Jamaica 237; plots (1722) 242
“free enterprise” 296n5
free laborers, solidarity with bond laborer 148, 150-2
“free land”: diverts from struggles with the bourgeoisie 258; “safety valve” theory 362n123
free market forces 240
freedmen and freedwomen: in British West Indies 232-8, definitions of 354n96; concessions to erode rationale for white supremacy 237; in Jamaica (19th century) freedmen into trades and freedwomen into shopkeeping 234; ruling class insights on link between concessions to and control over bond-laborers 235-7; and social control 357n23;
freedom: and class struggle 334n6; dues 137, 250, 273
freeholders 223
freemen: definitions of (in West Indies) 354n96; excessive emigration of 227-30; and social control 168-9; voting rights 329n5, 341-2n16, loss of voting rights 329n5, 341-2n16
French 215, 294n93, possible invasion by 346n92
“French Negroes” 231
Frethorne, Richard 86-8
frontier: disappearance of 258; “frontier democracy,” white chauvinism of (“frontier aggression”) 340n4; plantation owners 342n17; as-social-safety-valve theory (Turner) 257-9, 362n118, safety-valve corollary 257; Washburn on “frontier aggressiveness” 204, 330n23
Fugger family 277n5
Fulcher, John 240-1
fur trade 209, 343n42

Gale, Mary 150
Galenson, David W. 356n10, 363n9
Ganga Zumba 262
Garrison, William Lloyd (1805-1879) 214
Garroway, Mr. 270
Gates, Governor Thomas 51, 109, 297-8n23
Gatford, Lionel 176
Gauntlett, William 99
gender oppression: number of cases 158; and class oppression 130-5, 154, 158-61 319n110; girl abused 323n183; severe on servant women who gets, or risks becoming, pregnant 69. See also male supremacy; women
genocide: bourgeois eye looks upon indifferently 205; of native peoples of West Indies 33
“gentry” 246
George 67, 307n72
George III, king of England see English monarchs
George, Thomas 156
Georgia colony: act repealing ban on slavery (1750) included “deficiency” provision 253; exclusion of slavery in 245, 331-2n51; founded on no-slavery principle 252
“germ theory” 296n5
Germander, John 193
Ges, Ane 311n40
Geserol [?], John 182
Getting, Jane 157
Gibson, Charles 32
Gibson, Edmund 240, 356-7n19
Gilbert, Thomas 335n37
Gilpin, Bernard 21
Glorious Revolution 345n67
Gloucester County: elite 341n10; militia 210; records 152; plot 153; riot 219
Gloucestershire, England 95, 309n136, 310n26
Godolphin, Sir Sidney 273
Godhall, John 322n167
Godwyn, Morgan 191-2, 329n19, 351n39
gold 7, 30, 39, 289n3: reserves 259; standard abandoned 259
Goldsmith, John 336n40
Golden Age 15, 239
Gooch, Governor William: background to letter 250, 356-7n19; exclusion of free African-Americans from intermediate social control buffer as corollary of establishment of “white race” 249; “fix a perpetual Brand upon Free Negroes & Mulattos” letter 242-5; on inability of Virginia linen to compete with English textiles 171
Good, John 215, 346n95
Goodrich, Carter 362n123
Goodwin, Thomas 151
Gorges, Sir Fernando 297-8n23
Gosse, Anthony 135
Gouge, Henry 144
governors 112-13, 297-8n23
Gowen, Mihill 193
Grace, Miles 155
Grace-Suzana (“Negro childe”) 193
grain cultivation, increase in 331-2n51
Grammer, John 323n189
Grangers 258
Grantham, Captain Thomas 214, 346nn 92, 93, 97
Gray, Lewis C.: on bond-servitude 267, 311-2n41; and Morgan’s “boom” 308n125; number of African bond-laborers brought to 13 original colonies 316n40; on tobacco prices 330n22
Gray, Samuel 322-3n188
Gray, William 182
Great Charter (1618) 49-50, 53
Great Rebellion (1381) 15, 19, 102, 263-4
Greeks 257
Green Spring (later Williamsburg) 346-7n97
Green Spring faction 206, 210, 219
Greenstead, William 195-6
Gregory, James 154
Grenada 235, 349n2
Griffin, David 161, 328n93
Griphen, Joseph 136
Guayabana 31
Guiana 351n35
Gusall, John 180, 187
Gwynne, Aubrey 231

hacienda 291n51
Haggman, Joseph 144
Hagleton, Thomas 190
Haiti (Hispaniola) indigenous population almost completely destroyed by Spanish forced labor and disease 7, 31-2; Hispaniola, St Domingue, and 278n31
Haitian Revolution: “innings in Jamaica” 237-8; James on 344n58; abolition and national liberation movement that ushered in era of emancipation 9-10
Hakluyt, Richard 12, 25
Hale, Widow 151
Hall, C. C. 125
Hambleton, Catherine 131
Hammond, James Henry 363n9
Hamor, 307n103
Hamstead, Rich 183
Handler, Professor 234
Haney, Richard 335n25
Hanging 144, 347n103
Harboard, William 345n67
Harlow, V. T. 228, 352n47
Harris, John 157, 181
Harrison, George, 65
Hartley, Thomas 151
Hartwell, John 314n5
Harvey, John 83-4, 301n94
Hatch, John 136
Hathuey 280-1n69
Haverland, William 120, 315n15
Hawkins, John 150
Hawley, William 155, 188
Hawley, Captain William 188
headrights: after 1616 term in vogue 299n57; basis of high concentration of land-ownership 174; capitalist entitled to land from, even if person whose passage was paid dies 78; captains of ships and 121; could be sold 183; Governor and Colony Council seek to protect 209; and importation of bond-laborers 167; increased class differentiation 62; and land engrossment 166-7; more laborers needed to profitably use land from 104; number of in Virginia and Maryland 314n4; in Maryland unlike Virginia principle did not apply to importation of African laborers 300n67; principle of 58-60, 309n4, 315n25
Hebrew tribal law 192
Hecht, Irene W.D. 316n43
Hedges, English Attorney-General 329n19
Hedges, Sarah 318n80
Hedrington, Thomas 155
Henninghausen, Louis P. 311n38
Henrico 93, 157
Henry VII, king of England see English monarchs
Henry VIII, king of England see English monarchs
Henry, H.M. 249, 254, 359n60
hereditary bondage 123, 134, 188-91: owners desire for 188. See also bond-labor, lifetime hereditary
Herrick, Cheesman 311n38
Hickes, John 136
Higgins, Katherine 131
Higginson, Humphrey 194-5
Hill, Edward 91, 306n54
Hill, Joe 194
Hill Richard, 154-5
Hilton, Rodney 284n26
Hind, Walter 334n18
Hinton, Elyas 96
Hispaniola see Haiti
Hibson, Peter 135
history, course of, in Anglo-American and regenerate U.S. form 205
Hodge, Robert 155
Hoe, Rice, Jr. and Sr. 189
hog-stealing 149, 151, 325n24
hogsheads 348n131
Holland 5-6, 8, 11, 102, 178, 297-8n23
Holbrooke, Elizabeth 322n167
Homestead Law of 1862 354n103
homesteads: free to “every free mulatto, Indian, or negro” in Jamaica 234-5, 242-3
Honduras 354-5n111
Hopewell 307n72
Horner, Henry 99
Hotten, John C. 167
House of Burgesses 93, 163, 206-7, 218: members involved in revising law (of 1705) with provisions relative to establishment of racial oppression and the “white race” 272: and Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) 209-10; legislation for anti-Indian army 210; social instability 218-19; status of African-Americans 184
“household mode of production” 175
Hudde, Andreis 102
Hughes, Mary 161-2
Hughes, Robert 160
Humacao 31
Hummerstone, Timothy 127
Hungary 290n8

identity: stripping of Indians’ and African-Americans’ 295-6n122; “white,” established 248-9, exclusion of free African-Americans as corollary 249; “white race” as new all class, all European social 228-230, 351n39
illegitimate children 129-30
illness 142-3
immigrants, as plantation labor supply, a fantasy Dutch attitude 102
immigration 77, 97-8, 258: bond laborers as percent of 322-3n180
immunities 310n24
impoverishment 178, mass 217
Inca Manco 33
Incas 33
incubus of “white-skin” privileges that have paralyzed will of European-American laborers in defense of their interests vis-a-vis ruling class 259
indebtedness: class analysis of debts, widening gap, and deteriorating conditions of non-elite planters 66; Royal Commissioners describe it as one of the causes of (Bacon’s) rebellion 217; Virginia’s chronic 218
indentures: “first genuine servant’s indenture” (Smith) provides land, freedoms, and privileges at end of 3 years and laborer is not chattel 72, 303n148; indentured servitude not derived from apprenticeship 313-4n41; some voluntary immigrants come with 120
Indian labor: abandonment of as source of plantation bond-labor 36-45, 122-3; and invention of the white race 44-5; nonenslavability and nonassimability of 45; retrospective thoughts by colonists on 30; and social control 40-41
Indian policy: Act of 1723 for “better government of negroes, Mulattos, and Indians, bond or free” 241-2, 250-1; in the Americas 30-45; Berkeley’s 207; apprehension of runaway slaves 295n111; encouraged to make war on one another 224, 293nn 63-4; English buying and selling of 36-7; enslavement of 37; “frontier aggressiveness” and 204; Jennings on 294n105; motivated at first not by desire to maintain social control over exploitable Indian bond-labor but to exclude from English-occupied territory 204; need for friendly Indians in the buffer role 41; nonenlavability and nonassimilability 45; presumption of liberty extended to “white persons and native American Indians” not to African-Americans 316n39; to serve as two-way buffer 208; shipping out of colony 41; slavery 293-4n122; social control 30-31, 40-41; treaties (1646) 36, 43, 207, (1700) 43; as tributary subjects 208; under Berkeley 206-7
Indians: on “Aboriginal Population of Tidewater Virginia” 292n48; alleged “treachery” of 90; allies with French 340n121; attacks 36-7, 224; (1622) 36, 84, 90, 93 289n3, 295n118, 305n39, 305-6n43; Brazil 291n45; Canada 6; captives, English buying and selling of 36-7, enslavement of 37; in center of economic history of the hemisphere 9; Central Andes 279n44; colonists fear of unity with African Americans 42; colonists adapted into tribe 306n48; “completely broken from their tribal stems” (Philips) 42, 294n94; “control” aspect rather than “supply” aspect decisive for decline of enslavement of Indians 41; Cuba 278n40, 291n52; deaths in 84, 305-6n43, 306n54; (1644) 36; declared free in Virginia 338n94, Barbados 223, Caribbean 223-4; depopulation of 37, 40-1; displacement 207; as domestic source of bond-labor 122-3; employees within Virginia colony 295n118; English fomenting war on 37; and European rivalries 294n105; extermination 30-31; fate of controlled by parameters of nonenlavability and nonassimilability 45; flight to 77; free 234-5; “from Indians as white men to Indians as tawnies or redskins” 341n9; genocidal policy toward 332n64; harboring runaways 127-8; hostile 123; identity stripping and social control 295-6n122; inter-tribal rivalries 41; insurrection of 341n12; Jennings on 304n4; as labor source 7-8, in Mexico 278n41; lands, occupation of by Europeans 205; Maryland 294n105; massacre of 341n12, for Spanish and Portuguese 7; migration 42; and Negroes 42; New York 294n105; non-enslavability in Amazon region of Brazil 34; “not white” and “redskin” classification as outcome of the invention of the white race 204-05; number enslaved 37, 315n35; parallel with Irish 204; peace made with more distant, friendly 90, 123; presumption of liberty 316n39; provide corn 90, share with starving colonists at Jamestown colony 292n49; Puerto Rico 278n40; ready to take land from 256; rebels shipped into exile 301n100; resistance to being reduced to bond labor 41-3, to English encroachment on land 77; runaways 154; St. Lucia 224; slave laws on 293n72; slaves: 315n35, in Barbados 224, in Europe 8, number of 293n79; trade with 37, 40, 343n42, as chief means of securing Indian bond-laborers 37; traded for Afro-Caribbeans 41; “Trail of Tears” 35; treaties (1646) 36, 43, 207, (1700) 43; Turner’s “whiteness” and neglect of 362n118; uprising (1622) 84-6, 90, 92-4, 295n118, deaths in 84; war captives, enslavement of 204, 342-3n31; Washburn on Bacon’s Rebellion and 330n23; Vaughan, 341n9. See also Amaru, Tupac; Apalachees; Arotirene; Aztecs; bond-labor; Borinqueños; caciques; Canaobo; Caribbean Indians; Carolinas; Cherokees; Chichimecs; Chickasaws; Chickhominy Indians; Creek Indians; Debeada; Delaware tribe; Florida Indians; Guayabana; Huacao; Inca; Inca Manco; Maguana people; Matoaka; Metacom; Nanticoke Indians; Narragansetts; Natchez; Occaneechee; Pamunkey; Piscataway Indians; Powhatans of Viginia; Pungoteague Creek; Roanoake; Robin; runaways; Sioux; Susquehannock; Titu Yupanqui; Tuscaroras; Wampanoags; Yamassees
industrial production expansion 270-71
Ingram, Laurence 214, 342n23, 346n91
Innes, Stephen (co-author, “Myne Owne Ground”, Race and Freedom on Virginia’s Eastern Shore, 1640-1676) 182, 335nn 22, 36
institutions: inertia 180, Christianity and 338n82; lack of strong supporting social and religious 171; superstructure counter to logic of John Punch case 80
insurrections: Barbados 224-5, 229, 231, 237, intended, “of the negroes” 244; Brazil 225, Irish in the Caribbean 231; in Jamaica 225, 232, 237, 352n46, 356n12; Leeward Islands 237; Mexico 261; St. Kitts 231, St. Lucia 224. See also Bacon’s Rebellion; bond-laborers; Easter Rebellion; England; Great Rebellion; Ireland; Maroons; Midland Rebellion; Nat Turner’s Rebellion; Powhatan; rebellion; Virginia; Wat Tyler’s Rebellion
intermarriages, African-American and European-American 336n40
intermediate stratum: absence of 97-109, 163-4, 171, 177; chattel bond-labor system made it impossible to develop normal to English society 147; difference between societies with and without 292n47; free Negroes and “mulattos” excluded from 240, 242-3, included in 242-3; insubstantiality of 119, 163-176
invention of the white race 148, 204-5, 239-59, race and class and 240
The Invention of the White Race (Allen) on: attitudes of European-American workers 324n4; Bennett 341n7; bond-laborers’ struggles 344n58; Breen 324n4, 341n7; champions of the “paradox” thesis 312n43; criticism of Jordan 334n12; difference between societies with and without intermediate stratum 292n47; difference between the status of the English villein and lifetime bond-laborer in Anglo-America 289n101; European-American and African-American solidarity 324n4; “Irish slave trade” 314n10; male supremacy 324n4; Morgan 341n7; Oliver Ellsworth 309n1; “operative principles of social control in a stable civil society constituted on the basis of racial oppression” 352n54; shipment into exile of mostly Irish rebels 301n100; study of 17th century origin of racial slavery 148; treatment of Cherokees the most “English” of all tribes 295-6n106
“invisible hand” 123, 220
Ireland 215; 223: end of religio-racial oppression parallels 238; servile labor from 356n9
Ireland, John 65
Ireland, William 142
Ireton, Henry 347n104
Irish: -Americans not originators of white supremacy were adopted into it 361n91; bond-laborers 179, 197, 228, 230-1; in British West Indies 226, 230-31; Catholic chieftains 223; Catholics right to lease not purchase in Ireland 354n103; “confederate with the negroes” 244, extended length of service for 334n18; insurrections 231; “Irish slave trade” 149, 179, 314n10; men to be sold as slaves in Virginia 334n17; rebels shipped away 301n100; troops and English 353n62; ungovernable veterans shipped as bond-laborers 218-9
Iroquois Seneca 342n17
Isaiah 329n14
Isle of Wight County 166, 343n35
Italy 18

Jackson, Anthony 156
Jackson, Luther Porter 183-4

Jamaica: African bond-laborers 352n46; Assembly 234; authorities fearful of imminent mass rebellion by bond laborers 224; coloreds 237, and “perquisites of whites” 355n129; English begin settlement (1655, from Spain) using chattel bond-laborers 349n3; European immigrants from Barbados 351n35; Europeans population decline 227-8, one-ninth of population 233; exodus of pardoned rebels followed by rebellion of African bond-laborers 352n46; “free blacks and coloreds” own 70,000 of 310,000 bond-laborers in 235; twenty-three percent of bond-labor owners of African ancestry (on eve of Emancipation) 240; free people of color 36% in 1770 and 72% in 1833 237; most freedmen go into trades and freedwomen shopkeeping in 18th century 234; garrison colony 232; German Protestants, proposal for settling colony of in Jamaica 229; Gooch fears runaways as in 245; and Haitian Revolution 238; homesteads free to “every free mulatto, Indian, or negro” 234-5, 242-3; insurrections plots revolts and rebellions 225, 232, 237, 352n46, 356n12, Port Royal 232; Irish in 231; island colony different from Virginia in terms of controlling rebels 291n35; land not fully exploited 351n28: landholding 227; maroons 225-6, 240, 261-2, 340n121; militia 2
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