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Jeffrey B. Perry Blog

“Rebellion and Reaction”
The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America, Vol. 2 of The Invention of the White Race (Verso Books, 2012) by Theodore W. Allen, to be discussed this Friday night, March 29, 2013, at 7:30

March 26, 2013

Tags: Rebellion and Reaction, The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America, The Invention of the White Race, Verso Books, Theodore W. Allen, Jeffrey B. Perry, Brecht Forum, Bacon's Rebellion, Anglo-Caribbean, Brecht Forum, Hubert Harrison and Theodore W. Allen Society



“Rebellion and Reaction”


The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America, the second volume of The Invention of the White Race, new expanded edition (Verso Books, 2012) by Theodore W. Allen, will be discussed this Friday night, March 29, 2013, at 7:30 PM by Jeffrey B. Perry at the Brecht Forum, 451 West St., NY (go to the West Side Drive between Bank and Bethune Sts.) in a program hosted by the Hubert Harrison and Theodore W. Allen Society.

Allen’s work details the invention of the “white race” and the development of racial slavery, a particular form of racial oppression, in late 17th and early 18th-century Virginia. This week’s presentation will focus on Volume 2, Section Four, and discuss Bacon’s Rebellion, the invention of the “white race” social control formation, and differences between the social control system established in Virginia and the system established in the Anglo-Caribbean.

People in the New York area are encouraged to attend.

Please share this information with those who might be interested!

For information on The Invention of the White Race, vol. 2: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America (including reviewers' comments and a Table of Contents of the volume) CLICK HERE .

For information on the Brecht Forum series CLICK HERE

“Road to Rebellion”
The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America, Vol. 2 of The Invention of the White Race (Verso Books, 2012) by Theodore W. Allen, to be discussed by Jeffrey B. Perry, Fri., Mar 22, Brecht Forum, NY

March 20, 2013

Tags: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America, The Invention of the White Race, Verso Books, Theodore W. Allen, Jeffrey B. Perry, Brecht Forum, Hubert Harrison and Theodore W. Allen Society, The Road to Rebellion, Bond-Labor Enduring . . ., . . . and Resisting, The Insubstantiality of the Intermediate Stratum, The Status of African-Americans

“Road to Rebellion”

The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America, the second volume of The Invention of the White Race (new edition, Verso Books, 2012) by Theodore W. Allen, will be discussed this Friday night, March 22, 2013 at 7:30 PM (and for the next two Fridays) by Jeffrey B. Perry at the Brecht Forum, 451 West St., NY between Bank and Bethune St.) in a program hosted by the Hubert Harrison and Theodore W. Allen Society.

Allen’s work details the invention of the “white race” and the development of racial slavery, a particular form of racial oppression, in late 17th and early 18th-century Virginia. This week’s presentation will focus on Volume 2, Section Three, “The Road to Rebellion” and will discuss Chapters 7 (“Bond-Labor Enduring . . .”), 8 ( “. . . and Resisting”), 9 (“The Insubstantiality of the Intermediate Stratum”), and 10 (“The Status of African-Americans”).

People in the New York area are encouraged to attend.

Please share this information with those who might be interested!

For information on The Invention of the White Race, vol. 2: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America (including a Table of Contents of the volume) CLICK HERE .

For information on the Brecht Forum series CLICK HERE .

The Invention of the White Race (Verso Books) by Theodore W. Allen, especially Vol. II: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America. Video of Slide Presentation/Talk by Jeffrey B. Perry, Jan. 31, 2013, Brecht Forum

March 17, 2013

Tags: Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race, class struggle, racial opprssion, social control, white skin privilege, white race, white race privilege, Hubert Harrison, Jeffrey B. Perry, Verso Books, Brecht Forum



“When the first Africans arrived in Virginia in 1619, there were no ‘white’ people there; nor, according to the colonial records, would there be for another sixty years.”
Theodore W. Allen
(Written after searching through 885 county-years of Virginia’s colonial records)


Theodore W. Allen’s The Invention of the White Race, with its focus on racial oppression and social control, is one of the twentieth-century’s major contributions to historical understanding. This two-volume classic (Vol. 1: Racial Oppression and Social Control and Vol. 2: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America) details how the “white race” was invented as a ruling-class social control formation and a system of racial oppression was imposed in response to labor solidarity in the wake of Bacon’s Rebellion (1676-77), how the “white race” was created and maintained through “white race” privileges conferred on laboring class European-Americans relative to African-Americans, how these privileges were not in the interest of African-Americans or laboring class European-Americans, and how the “white race” has been the principal historic guarantor of ruling-class domination in America.

The Invention of the White Race presents a full-scale challenge to what Allen refers to as “The Great White Assumption” – “the unquestioning, indeed unthinking acceptance of the ‘white’ identity of European-Americans of all classes as a natural attribute rather than a social construct.” Its thesis on the origin and nature of the “white race” contains the root of a new and radical approach to United States history, one that challenges master narratives taught in the media and in schools, colleges, and universities. With its equalitarian motif and emphasis on class struggle it speaks to people today who strive for change worldwide.

Jeffrey B. Perry contributed new introductions, back matter, internal study guides, and expanded indexes to Verso Books’ new expanded edition of The Invention of the White Race. For more information on Dr. Perry and his work on Hubert Harrison “the father of Harlem radicalism” (1883-1927) and Theodore W. Allen (1919-2005).

CLICK HERE

The Invention of the White Race (Verso Books) by Theodore W. Allen, especially Vol. II: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America. Slide Presentation/Talk by Jeffrey B. Perry hosted by The Hubert Harrison and Theodore W. Allen Society on January 31, 2013, at the Brecht Forum in New York City.

Jeffrey B. Perry WBAI Radio interview/discussion with host Hugh Hamilton on Theodore W. Allen’s “The Invention of the White Race” (Verso Books) and on Hubert Harrison “The Father of Harlem Radicalism”

March 16, 2013

Tags: Hugh Hamilton, Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race, WBAI, Michael G. Haskins, Talkback, Verso Books, Hubert Harrison, The Father of Harlem Radicalism, Jeffrey B. Perry

Jeffrey B. Perry interview/discussion with host Hugh Hamilton on Theodore W. Allen’s “The Invention of the White Race” (Verso Books) and on Hubert Harrison “The Father of Harlem Radicalism.” WBAI Radio (99.5 FM, NYC) Broadcast, Thursday, March 14, 2013 from 4 to 5 PM. To listen please go HERE -- (to the second hour of the two-hour radio program) [Special thanks to Michael G. Haskins for his assistance with this program]

Jeffrey B. Perry on “Talk Back” with Hugh Hamilton, WBAI Radio (99.5 FM New York) at 4 PM, Thursday, March 14, 2013 discussing Theodore W. Allen (particularly The Invention of the White Race - new edition, Verso Books, 2012) and Hubert Harrison

March 14, 2013

Tags: Talk Back, Hugh Hamilton, WBAI, Theodore W. Allen, The Invention of the White Race, Verso Books, Hubert Harrison

Jeffrey B. Perry will be on “Talk Back” with host Hugh Hamilton on Radio Station WBAI (99.5 FM New York) at 4 PM today, Thursday, March 14, 2013 discussing the work of Theodore W. Allen (particularly The Invention of the White Race - new edition, Verso Books, 2012) and Hubert Harrison. For more information and to listen online CLICK HERE

“The Plantation of Bondage” -- Presentation on Chapters 4-6 of Theodore W. Allen's The Invention of the White Race, Vol. 2: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America

March 14, 2013

Tags: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America, The Invention of the White Race, Verso Books, Theodore W. Allen, Jeffrey B. Perry, Brecht Forum, Hubert Harrison and Theodore W. Allen Society, The Plantation of Bondage, The Fateful Addiction to Present Profit, The Massacre of the Tenantry, Bricks Without Straw: Bondage But No Intermediate Stratum


The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America, the second volume of The Invention of the White Race (new edition, Verso Books, 2012) by Theodore W. Allen, will be discussed this Friday night, March 15, 2013 at 7:30 PM (and for the next three Fridays) by Jeffrey B. Perry at the Brecht Forum, 451 West St., NY in a program hosted by the Hubert Harrison and Theodore W. Allen Society.

Allen’s work details the invention of the “white race” and the development of racial slavery, a particular form of racial oppression, in late 17th and early 18th-century Virginia. This week’s presentation will focus on Volume 2, Section Two, “The Plantation of Bondage” and will discuss Chapters 4 (“The Fateful Addiction to ‘Present Profit'”), 5 (“The Massacre of the Tenantry”), and 6 (“Bricks Without Straw: Bondage But No Intermediate Stratum”).

People in the New York area are encouraged to attend. Please share this information with those who might be interested!

For information on The Invention of the White Race vol. 2: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America (including a Table of Contents of the volume) CLICK HERE

For information on the Brecht Forum series CLICK HERE

Former SNCC Member Says Black America and the Political System Are Under Attack

March 5, 2013

Tags: Muriel Tillinghast, SNCC, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Nonviolent Action Group, Gary Glennell Toms, Hubert Harrison and Theodore W. Allen Society

Gary Glennell Toms interviews Muriel Tillinghast, a long-time civil rights activist, youth organizer, and former member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, also known as SNCC, which played a pivotal role during the turbulent 1960's. She has served as the president of the Nonviolent Action Group (NAG), an organization that addressed de-segregation issues in Washington, D.C., Maryland, and Delaware. She is actively involved with tenant's rights, AIDS-related issues, and has provided motivation and support to prison inmates who sought to expand their education. She is also actively involved with The Hubert Harrison and Theodore W. Allen Society.


The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America
Vol. II of Theodore W. Allen's The Invention of the White Race
Presentation by Jeffrey B. Perry
Friday, March 8, 2013, 7:30PM
Brecht Forum, New York

March 3, 2013

Tags: The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America, The Invention of the White Race, Theodore W. Allen, Brecht Forum, Hubert Harrison and Theodore W. Allen Society, Jeffrey B. Perry, Winthrop D. Jordan, Edmund S. Morgan


The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America, the second volume of The Invention of the White Race (new edition, Verso Books, 2012) by Theodore W. Allen, will be discussed this Friday night, March 8, 2013 at 7:30 PM (and for the next four Fridays) by Jeffrey B. Perry at the Brecht Forum, 451 West St., NY in a program hosted by the Hubert Harrison and Theodore W. Allen Society. Allen’s work details the invention of the “white race” and the development of racial slavery, a particular form of racial oppression, in late 17th and early 18th-century Virginia. People in the New York area are encouraged to attend. Please share this information with those who might be interested!


“When the first Africans arrived in Virginia in 1619, there were no ‘white’ people there; nor, according to the colonial records, would there be for another sixty years.”
Theodore W. Allen


That arresting statement, printed on the back cover of the first volume of The Invention of the White Race by Allen in 1994 reflected the fact that, after twenty-plus years of research in Virginia’s colonial records, he found “no instance of the official use of the word ‘white’ as a token of social status” prior to its appearance in a 1691 law. As he explained, “Others living in the colony at that time were English; they had been English when they left England, and naturally they and their Virginia-born children were English, they were not ‘white.’” “White identity had to be carefully taught, and it would be only after the passage of some six crucial decades” that the word “would appear as a synonym for European-American.”

In The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America Allen elaborates on his findings in order to develop the ground-breaking thesis that the “white race” was invented as a ruling class social control formation in response to labor solidarity as manifested in the later, civil war stages of Bacon's Rebellion (1676-7). To this he adds two important corollaries: 1) the ruling elite, in its own class interest, deliberately instituted a system of racial privileges in order to define and establish the “white race” and establish a system of racial oppression, and 2) the consequences were not only ruinous to the interests of African-Americans, but was also “disastrous” for the European-American workers.

Allen focuses on the pattern-setting Virginia colony in the late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Anglo-American plantation colonies. He discusses the reduction of tenants and wage-laborers to chattel bond-servants in the 1620s and explains that this was a qualitative break from the condition of laborers in England and from long established English labor law, that it was not a feudal carryover, that it was imposed under capitalism, and that it was an essential precondition of the emergence of the lifetime hereditary chattel bond-servitude imposed upon African-American laborers under the system of racial slavery. Allen describes how, throughout much of the seventeenth century, the status of African-Americans was indeterminate (because it was still being fought out) and he details the similarity of conditions for African-American and European-American laborers and bond-servants. He also documents many significant instances of labor solidarity and unrest, especially during the 1660s and 1670s. Most important in this respect is his analysis of the civil war stage of Bacon’s Rebellion when "foure hundred English and Negroes in Arms" fought together demanding freedom from bondage.

It was in the period after Bacon's Rebellion that the “white race” was invented as a ruling-class social control formation. Allen describes systematic ruling-class policies, which conferred “white race” privileges on European-Americans while imposing harsher disabilities on African-Americans resulting in a system of racial slavery, a form of racial oppression that also imposed severe racial proscriptions on free African-Americans. He emphasizes that when African-Americans were deprived of their long-held right to vote in Virginia and Governor William Gooch explained in 1735 that the Virginia Assembly had decided upon this curtailment of the franchise in order "to fix a perpetual Brand upon Free Negros & Mulattos," it was not an "unthinking decision." Rather, it was a deliberate act by the plantation bourgeoisie and was a conscious decision in the process of establishing a system of racial oppression, even though it entailed repealing an electoral principle that had existed in Virginia for more than a century.

The key to understanding racial oppression, Allen argues, is in the formation of the intermediate social control buffer stratum, which serves the interests of the ruling class. In the case of racial oppression in Virginia, any persons of discernible non-European ancestry after Bacon's Rebellion were denied a role in the social control buffer group, the bulk of which was made up of laboring-class "whites." In the Anglo-Caribbean, by contrast, under a similar Anglo- ruling elite, "mulattos" were included in the social control stratum and were promoted into middle-class status. For Allen, this was the key to understanding the difference between Virginia’s ruling-class policy of “fixing a perpetual brand” on African-Americans, and the policy of the West Indian planters of formally recognizing the middle-class status “colored” descendant and other Afro-Caribbeans who earned special merit by their service to the regime. This difference, between racial oppression and national oppression, was rooted in a number of social control-related factors, one of the most important of which was that in the West Indies there were “too few” poor and laboring-class Europeans to embody an adequate petit bourgeoisie, while in the continental colonies there were '’too many’' to be accommodated in the ranks of that class.

The references to an “unthinking decision” and “too few” poor and laboring class Europeans are consistent with Allen's repeated efforts to challenge what he considered to be the two main arguments that undermine and disarm the struggle against white supremacy in the working class: (1) the argument that white supremacism is innate, and (2) the argument that European-American workers “benefit” from “white race” privileges and that it is in their interest not to oppose them and not to oppose white supremacy. These two arguments, opposed by Allen, are related to two master historical narratives rooted in writings on the colonial period. The first argument is associated with the “unthinking decision” explanation for the development of racial slavery offered by historian Winthrop D. Jordan in his influential, White Over Black. The second argument is associated with historian Edmund S. Morgan’s similarly influential, American Slavery, American Freedom, which maintains that, as racial slavery developed, “there were too few free poor [European-Americans] on hand [in Virginia] to matter.” Allen’s work directly challenges both the “unthinking decision” contention of Jordan and the “too few free poor” contention of Morgan.

Allen convincingly argues that the “white race” privileges conferred by the ruling class on European-Americans were not only ruinous to the interests of African-Americans; they were also against the class interest of European-American workers. He further argues that these “white-skin privileges” are “the incubus that for three centuries has paralyzed” the will of European-American workers “in defense of their class interests vis-à-vis those of the ruling class.”

With its meticulous primary research, equalitarian motif, emphasis on the class struggle dimension of history, and groundbreaking analysis The Invention of the White Race is a recognized classic. Allen felt that its theory on the origin and nature of the “white race” contains the root of a new and radical approach to United States history. The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America has profound implications for American History, African-American History, Labor History, American Studies, and “Whiteness” Studies and it offers important insights in the areas of Caribbean History and African Diaspora Studies. Its influence will continue to grow in the twenty-first century.

For information on The Invention of the White Race vol. 2 The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America (including a Table of Contents of the volume) CLICK HERE

For information on the Brecht Forum series CLICK HERE

Theodore W. Allen's "The Invention of the White Race" -- Tonight “Racial Oppression and Social Control”

March 1, 2013

Tags: Hubert Harrison and Theodore W. Allen Society, The Invention of the White Race, Verso Books, Brecht Forum, Racial Oppression and Social Control, Jeffrey B. Perry

The Hubert Harrison and Theodore W. Allen Society is hosting a presentation by Jeffrey B. Perry on Theodore W. Allen's "The Invention of the White Race" (new expanded edition Verso Books, 2012) tonight Friday, March 1, 2013, 7:30 PM at the Brecht Forum, 451 West St., NYC. Tonight’s discussion will focus on Volume 1: “Racial Oppression and Social Control.” Come and bring a friend! Open to the public! For more information -- CLICK HERE

Hubert Harrison:
The Voice of
Harlem Radicalism, 1883-1918

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